Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Certificate Course

Gain a more in depth understanding of the human body

Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Certificate Course

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Study Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online, gain a more in depth understanding of the different function and structures of the human body

Our Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online course has been designed to provide a more in-depth understanding of the human body and the accompanying physiological process that allow for its optimal functioning.

As well as revisiting and expanding on some basic principles such as the skeletal and muscular system, this course provides detailed explanations of some more complex aspects of anatomy such as the heart, the brain and spinal cord and the autonomic nervous system.

This Online Anatomy Course also provides detailed aspects of a number of the physiological functions that occur in the human body.

What you will learn with our Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Course

  • The Skeletal System
  • The Joints
  • The Muscular System
  • The Chemistry of Using Food to provide Energy for the Body
  • Cellular Energy
  • The Heart
  • The Brain
  • The Spinal Cord
  • Neurons
  • Voluntary and Reflex Actions and the Automatic Nervous System

What are the Popular Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Course?

  1. Certificate in Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Course
  2. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 2 Certificate Courses
  3. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 3 Certificate Courses
  4. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 5 Certificate Courses
  5. Ultimate Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 10 Certificate Courses

Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses - Requirements

The Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses is delivered 100 percent online 24/7.

To successfully complete this course, a student must:

  • Have access to the internet and the necessary technical skills to navigate the online learning resources
  • Have access to any mobile device with internet connectivity (laptop, desktop, tablet)
  • Be a self-directed learner
  • Possess sound language and literacy skills

Quick Course Facts

  1. Course content is structured for easy comprehension
  2. Registered students gain unrestricted access to the Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses
  3. All course material is available online 24/7 and can be accessed using any device
  4. Study online from anywhere in your own time at your own pace
  5. All students who complete the course will be awarded with a certificate of completion

Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online

Unit One: The Skeletal System

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Describe the main functions of the skeletal system
  • Identify the 2 classifications of bone that make up the skeletal system
  • Identify the 5 main categories of bone type
  • Explain the structure of skeletal tissue
  • Describe the development of bone

Functions of the skeletal system:

  1. Support
  2. Protection
  3. Movement
  4. Blood production
  5. Mineral storage

Topics to be discussed include:

  • Structure of the Skeleton
  • Types of bone
  • 5 categories of bones according to their shape
  • Structure of Skeletal Tissues
  • Development of Bone

Unit Two: Joints

Wherever two or more bones meet, a joint or articulation exists. Movement does not always occur at these joints, and the amount of movement allowed at each determines its classification.

  • Fibrous or fixed joints
  • Cartilaginous or slightly movable joints
  • Synovial or freely movable joints

Synovial Joints

There are several types of synovial joint. Each differ depending on the shapes of the articular surfaces and the movements that are allowed.

  • Common Characteristics of Synovial Joints
  • Movement Patterns at Synovial Joints

Unit Three: The Muscular System

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Identify the properties and function of skeletal muscle
  • Describe the composition of muscle
  • Identify the types of muscular contraction
  • Explain the Sliding Filament Theory
  • Describe how muscle contraction is initiated
  • Summarize the all or none law
  • Explain how muscle contraction is controlled

Properties of Skeletal Muscle

  1. Excitability
  2. Extensibility
  3. Elasticity
  4. Contractility

Topics in this unit include:

  • Muscle Shapes
  • Muscle Connective Tissues
  • Types of Muscular Contraction
  • Structure of Skeletal Muscle
  • The All or None Law

Unit Four: The Chemistry of Food as an Energy Source

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Understand how the food we eat is absorbed and utilized to provide energy
  • Explain how food molecules are transported to cells where they will be used

The food we eat provides all the raw materials for our cellular machinery to work on. Most of what we eat has been produced by plants and animals, from simple substances extracted from the earth, the air and the sea.

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats

Taking apart and rebuilding

Plants use starch as their main store of carbohydrate. This is composed of chains of the sugar, glucose. Glucose is made by plants from carbon dioxide and water, through the process of photosynthesis.

The route to the factory

Continuing with the example of glucose, let’s consider how it gets from the digestive system into the cell where it will be used. This will introduce you to some more kinds of cellular work and some specialist cellular adaptations.

Unit Five: Cellular Energy

Energy is a difficult thing to describe. We can’t observe it directly; we can only observe its effects. Energy enables work to be performed.

Energy conversion

Almost all the energy we use arises from the same source – solar energy, which enables plants to grow. This is converted into the chemical energy which holds atoms together in the macromolecules made by plants.

The Cells’ energy source

The chemical energy requirement of all cells in the body is supplied by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). All sources of energy found in food, have to be converted into ATP before the potential energy in them can be used.

The structure of mitochondria

Mitochondria are larger than many of the sub-cellular structures. They are just about visible when a living cell is viewed with the ordinary light microscope. In different cell types they vary in shape, size and numbers.

Unit Six: The Heart

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Identify the mechanisms of the heart beat and how it is controlled
  • Describe the relationship between the heart and blood pressure

The Heart Beat

Each time anyone’s heart beats it creates a very small electrical current. This happens all the time. The electrical current is measured using a machine called an electrocardiogram (ECG).

  • The cardiac cycle
  • Checking the heart rate
  • Training the Heart
  • Control of the Heart Rate

The Heart and Blood Pressure

The rate at which blood is pumped around the body depends on the body’s needs. During physical activity, working muscles may increase their oxygen consumption, up to 20 times more, when compared to the body’s needs at rest.

  • Cardiac output
  • Resistance to flow

Unit Seven: The Brain

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Summarize the functions of the central nervous system
  • Identify the structure and function of the five main parts of the brain
  • Explain the function of the ventricles of the brain
  • Explain the role of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid

The Central Nervous System

The central nervous system contracts the voluntary muscles of the head, trunk and limbs and is responsible for all movement in them and for all sensation in skin, muscle, bones and joints and the special sense organs.

The Brain

The brain is a complex organ. Early in its development its cavity becomes divided by constrictures into three parts – forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

The 5 Main Parts of the Brain are:

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Midbrain
  4. Medulla oblongata
  5. Pons Varolii

Unit Eight: The Spinal Cord

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Explain the structure and function of the spinal cord
  • Identify the peripheral nerves
  • Explain the type, function and distribution of the twelve cranial nerves
  • Classify the spinal nerves

The Structure of the Spinal Cord

The spinal cord varies somewhat in thickness, swelling out in both the cervical and lumbar regions, when it gives off the large nerve supply to the limbs. These are called the cervical and lumbar enlargements.

The Nerves

  1. The cranial nerves - These supply the organs of the head and neck. They are as a rule, either motor or sensory, but some are mixed.
  2. Cervical Nerves - There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, one above the atlas and one below each of the cervical vertebrae.
  3. Thoracic Nerves - There are twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, one below each of the thoracic vertebrae.
  4. Lumbar Nerves - There are five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves and one pair of coccygeal nerves.
  5. Sacral Nerves - The sacral nerves, with branches from the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves, form the sacral plexus, which gives rise to one large nerve.
  6. Coccygeal Nerves - The coccygeal nerves, together with branches from the lower sacral nerves, form a second small plexus on the back of the pelvic cavity.

Unit Nine: Neurons

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Describe the structure of a typical neuron
  • Identify different types of neuron and explain their functions
  • Explain the electrical and chemical factors essential in the functioning of nerve tissue

Nervous Tissue

The nervous system is the system of communication between the various parts of the body. It can be compared to a simple telephone system in which the brain is comparable to the central switchboard, the spinal cord is comparable to the main cable and the nerves are comparable to the telephone wires, ending in receivers and dischargers of messages in the body tissue.

The Myelin Sheath – Functions

  • Protection
  • Nutrition
  • Insulation

Types of Neuron

  1. Efferent neurons
  2. Afferent neurons

Types of Nerve Fiber Ending

  1. Efferent (motor) nerve endings
  2. Afferent (sensory) nerve endings.

The Synapse

It is essential that neurons communicate with each other. For example, the axon of one neuron may need to communicate with the dendrite of another nerve cell.

The Nerve Impulse

One of the ways in which substances may enter and exit a cell is via the process of osmosis. In order for this process to occur the cell membrane has to be semi-permeable. This means that cell walls have a variety of ‘gates’ through which various substances are allowed to pass.

Neurotransmitters

The nerve impulse is a form of electrical activity. The gap between the nerve end and the next cell is a fluid-filled space – the synapse. The impulse cannot jump across the gap like a spark in an electrical circuit.

  • Action Potential
  • Resting Membrane Potential

Unit Ten: Voluntary and Reflex Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Explain the anatomical difference between a voluntary movement and a reflex action
  • Explain the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Identify the functions of the autonomic nervous system

Voluntary Movement

Voluntary movement occurs as a result of stimuli produced at will in the motor centers of the brain. The stimuli are transmitted by motor fibers, via the cord and nerves, to the muscles to produce contractions.

Reflex Action

Reflex action occurs as a result of the stimulation of the motor cells by stimuli transmitted by afferent neurons from the tissues. Incoming stimuli can therefore, cause sensation and give rise to a reaction.

The Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system supplies nerves to all the internal organs of the body and blood vessels. It is the part of the nervous system which controls and regulates the activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and certain glands.

  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • Functions of the autonomic nervous system

Recognition & Accreditation

All students who complete this course, receive a certificate of completion with a passing score (for the online assessment) and will be issued a certificate via email.

The Skeletal System

  • Describe the main functions of the skeletal system
  • Identify the types of bone that make up the skeletal system
  • Identify the 5 main types of bone classification
  • Explain the structure of skeletal tissue
  • Describe the development of bone

Joints

  • What is a joint
  • Main types of joint
  • Synovial joints – their common characteristics and movement patterns
  • Anatomical position
  • Degrees of freedom of joints
  • Planes of the body
  • Training the skeleton

The Muscular System

  • Identify the three types of muscle tissue
  • Properties of skeletal muscle
  • Describe the functions of skeletal muscle
  • Identify different muscles shapes
  • What is the role of the muscle fibres
  • Identify the types of muscular contraction
  • Identify the structure of skeletal muscles
  • Explain the Sliding Filament Theory
  • Describe how muscle contraction is initiated
  • The all or none law
  • Explain how muscle contraction is controlled

The Chemistry of Using Food to provide Energy for the Body

  • How the food we eat is taken apart and utilised to provide energy
  • How food molecules are transported to cells where they will be used

Cellular Energy

  • describe where the energy to drive cellular activity comes from
  • explain what mitochondria are and how they function
  • explain where mitochondria are thought to have originated

The Heart

  • Describe the anatomical position of the heart, its size and its structure
  • Explain the passage of blood flow through the heart
  • Identify the mechanisms of the heart beat and how it is controlled
  • Describe the cardiac cycle
  • Describe how the heart is trained
  • Identify the main arteries that supply the heart with blood
  • Describe the relationship between the heart and blood pressure

The Brain

  • Summarise the functions of the central nervous system
  • Identify the structure and function of the five main parts of the brain 
  • Explain the function of the ventricles of the brain 
  • Explain the role of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid

The Spinal Cord

  • Explain the structure and function of the spinal cord
  • Identify the peripheral nerves
  • Explain the type, function and distribution of the twelve cranial nerves
  • Explain the function and route of the spinal nerves.

Neurones

  • Describe the structure of a  typical neuron
  • Identify different types of neuron and explain their functions
  • Explain the function of nerve endings
  • Identify the electrical and chemical factors essential in the functioning of nerve tissue

Voluntary and Reflex Actions and the Automatic Nervous System

  • Explain the anatomical difference between a voluntary movement and a reflex action
  • Explain the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Identify the functions of the autonomic nervous system

Entry requirements

Students must have basic literacy and numeracy skills.

Open entry

Previous schooling and academic achievements are not required for entry into this course.

Computer requirements

Students will need access to a computer and the internet.

Minimum specifications for the computer are:

Windows:

  • Microsoft Windows XP, or later
  • Modern and up to date Browser (Internet Explorer 8 or later, Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

MAC/iOS

  • OSX/iOS 6 or later
  • Modern and up to date Browser (Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

All systems

  • Internet bandwidth of 1Mb or faster
  • Flash player or a browser with HTML5 video capabilities(Currently Internet Explorer 9, Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

Students will also need access the following applications:

  • Adobe Acrobat Reader 

Customer Reviews

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(21)
Average rating 4.8 out of 5 stars

Carl Blake

31 December 2021 04:47:04 PM

This Anatomy and Physiology course I took is complete and easy to understand.

Richard Bailey

28 December 2021 06:14:07 PM

I've learned more about the subject in weeks than what I learned at the university

Stewart Carr

24 December 2021 09:45:09 AM

The content is intelligent and engaging

Brian Langdon

19 December 2021 04:00:56 AM

It does a pretty good job in covering the basics and going into moderate detail in a way that's easy to understand.

Alexander Allan

14 December 2021 12:54:04 PM

This course is great. It is an online course that teaches you everything about anatomy.

Katherine Turner

1 December 2021 06:53:57 PM

This Covers everything from the ground up and uses a lot of infographics to help you learn.

Neil Rampling

29 November 2021 03:11:21 PM

I enrolled in this anatomy and physiology course and I loved it!

Jonathan Walsh

23 November 2021 06:49:08 PM

Excellent resource! This is a great course that's current and complete.

Isaac Quinn

18 November 2021 02:54:35 PM

Im very happy with this course

Matt Lee

10 November 2021 04:26:49 PM

good info will def help with my career

Hannah Lee

7 November 2021 04:36:45 AM

Great overview and lesson plan! Great course!

Joe Springer

2 November 2021 04:25:54 PM

Looking forward to diving into more courses from this company!

Wendy Simpson Hasad

28 October 2021 03:10:54 PM

The course not only covers anatomy and physiology, but also muscle testing, business management skills, marketing strategies, exercise instruction techniques and more.

Harry Powell

26 October 2021 05:52:45 PM

I didn't even need training. I would also like to say thank you to all your staff. Absolutely wonderful!

Stewart Ince

21 October 2021 09:28:07 AM

Great! Course packed with info!! wonderful!!

Andrew Bailey

14 October 2021 04:53:43 PM

Topics are well discussed, just right for what is needed

Emma Short

10 December 2021 04:29:13 AM

I had a lot of doubts about this course at first, but over the last few days I really grew to love it.

Bella Abraham

16 October 2021 03:40:20 AM

Overall an excellent course!

Thomas Peake

14 October 2021 04:53:15 PM

Wow, so much info packed into a comprehensive course pack

Karen Lynn Turpin

17 October 2021 01:38:31 AM

Good info, easily explained

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About this Course

Study Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online, gain a more in depth understanding of the different function and structures of the human body

Our Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online course has been designed to provide a more in-depth understanding of the human body and the accompanying physiological process that allow for its optimal functioning.

As well as revisiting and expanding on some basic principles such as the skeletal and muscular system, this course provides detailed explanations of some more complex aspects of anatomy such as the heart, the brain and spinal cord and the autonomic nervous system.

This Online Anatomy Course also provides detailed aspects of a number of the physiological functions that occur in the human body.

What you will learn with our Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Course

  • The Skeletal System
  • The Joints
  • The Muscular System
  • The Chemistry of Using Food to provide Energy for the Body
  • Cellular Energy
  • The Heart
  • The Brain
  • The Spinal Cord
  • Neurons
  • Voluntary and Reflex Actions and the Automatic Nervous System

What are the Popular Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Course?

  1. Certificate in Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Course
  2. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 2 Certificate Courses
  3. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 3 Certificate Courses
  4. Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 5 Certificate Courses
  5. Ultimate Anatomy and Physiology - Advanced Online Bundle, 10 Certificate Courses

Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses - Requirements

The Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses is delivered 100 percent online 24/7.

To successfully complete this course, a student must:

  • Have access to the internet and the necessary technical skills to navigate the online learning resources
  • Have access to any mobile device with internet connectivity (laptop, desktop, tablet)
  • Be a self-directed learner
  • Possess sound language and literacy skills

Quick Course Facts

  1. Course content is structured for easy comprehension
  2. Registered students gain unrestricted access to the Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Courses
  3. All course material is available online 24/7 and can be accessed using any device
  4. Study online from anywhere in your own time at your own pace
  5. All students who complete the course will be awarded with a certificate of completion

Advanced Anatomy and Physiology Online

Unit One: The Skeletal System

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Describe the main functions of the skeletal system
  • Identify the 2 classifications of bone that make up the skeletal system
  • Identify the 5 main categories of bone type
  • Explain the structure of skeletal tissue
  • Describe the development of bone

Functions of the skeletal system:

  1. Support
  2. Protection
  3. Movement
  4. Blood production
  5. Mineral storage

Topics to be discussed include:

  • Structure of the Skeleton
  • Types of bone
  • 5 categories of bones according to their shape
  • Structure of Skeletal Tissues
  • Development of Bone

Unit Two: Joints

Wherever two or more bones meet, a joint or articulation exists. Movement does not always occur at these joints, and the amount of movement allowed at each determines its classification.

  • Fibrous or fixed joints
  • Cartilaginous or slightly movable joints
  • Synovial or freely movable joints

Synovial Joints

There are several types of synovial joint. Each differ depending on the shapes of the articular surfaces and the movements that are allowed.

  • Common Characteristics of Synovial Joints
  • Movement Patterns at Synovial Joints

Unit Three: The Muscular System

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Identify the properties and function of skeletal muscle
  • Describe the composition of muscle
  • Identify the types of muscular contraction
  • Explain the Sliding Filament Theory
  • Describe how muscle contraction is initiated
  • Summarize the all or none law
  • Explain how muscle contraction is controlled

Properties of Skeletal Muscle

  1. Excitability
  2. Extensibility
  3. Elasticity
  4. Contractility

Topics in this unit include:

  • Muscle Shapes
  • Muscle Connective Tissues
  • Types of Muscular Contraction
  • Structure of Skeletal Muscle
  • The All or None Law

Unit Four: The Chemistry of Food as an Energy Source

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Understand how the food we eat is absorbed and utilized to provide energy
  • Explain how food molecules are transported to cells where they will be used

The food we eat provides all the raw materials for our cellular machinery to work on. Most of what we eat has been produced by plants and animals, from simple substances extracted from the earth, the air and the sea.

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats

Taking apart and rebuilding

Plants use starch as their main store of carbohydrate. This is composed of chains of the sugar, glucose. Glucose is made by plants from carbon dioxide and water, through the process of photosynthesis.

The route to the factory

Continuing with the example of glucose, let’s consider how it gets from the digestive system into the cell where it will be used. This will introduce you to some more kinds of cellular work and some specialist cellular adaptations.

Unit Five: Cellular Energy

Energy is a difficult thing to describe. We can’t observe it directly; we can only observe its effects. Energy enables work to be performed.

Energy conversion

Almost all the energy we use arises from the same source – solar energy, which enables plants to grow. This is converted into the chemical energy which holds atoms together in the macromolecules made by plants.

The Cells’ energy source

The chemical energy requirement of all cells in the body is supplied by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). All sources of energy found in food, have to be converted into ATP before the potential energy in them can be used.

The structure of mitochondria

Mitochondria are larger than many of the sub-cellular structures. They are just about visible when a living cell is viewed with the ordinary light microscope. In different cell types they vary in shape, size and numbers.

Unit Six: The Heart

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Identify the mechanisms of the heart beat and how it is controlled
  • Describe the relationship between the heart and blood pressure

The Heart Beat

Each time anyone’s heart beats it creates a very small electrical current. This happens all the time. The electrical current is measured using a machine called an electrocardiogram (ECG).

  • The cardiac cycle
  • Checking the heart rate
  • Training the Heart
  • Control of the Heart Rate

The Heart and Blood Pressure

The rate at which blood is pumped around the body depends on the body’s needs. During physical activity, working muscles may increase their oxygen consumption, up to 20 times more, when compared to the body’s needs at rest.

  • Cardiac output
  • Resistance to flow

Unit Seven: The Brain

The Learning Outcomes for this assignment are:

  • Summarize the functions of the central nervous system
  • Identify the structure and function of the five main parts of the brain
  • Explain the function of the ventricles of the brain
  • Explain the role of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid

The Central Nervous System

The central nervous system contracts the voluntary muscles of the head, trunk and limbs and is responsible for all movement in them and for all sensation in skin, muscle, bones and joints and the special sense organs.

The Brain

The brain is a complex organ. Early in its development its cavity becomes divided by constrictures into three parts – forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

The 5 Main Parts of the Brain are:

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Midbrain
  4. Medulla oblongata
  5. Pons Varolii

Unit Eight: The Spinal Cord

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Explain the structure and function of the spinal cord
  • Identify the peripheral nerves
  • Explain the type, function and distribution of the twelve cranial nerves
  • Classify the spinal nerves

The Structure of the Spinal Cord

The spinal cord varies somewhat in thickness, swelling out in both the cervical and lumbar regions, when it gives off the large nerve supply to the limbs. These are called the cervical and lumbar enlargements.

The Nerves

  1. The cranial nerves - These supply the organs of the head and neck. They are as a rule, either motor or sensory, but some are mixed.
  2. Cervical Nerves - There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, one above the atlas and one below each of the cervical vertebrae.
  3. Thoracic Nerves - There are twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, one below each of the thoracic vertebrae.
  4. Lumbar Nerves - There are five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves and one pair of coccygeal nerves.
  5. Sacral Nerves - The sacral nerves, with branches from the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves, form the sacral plexus, which gives rise to one large nerve.
  6. Coccygeal Nerves - The coccygeal nerves, together with branches from the lower sacral nerves, form a second small plexus on the back of the pelvic cavity.

Unit Nine: Neurons

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Describe the structure of a typical neuron
  • Identify different types of neuron and explain their functions
  • Explain the electrical and chemical factors essential in the functioning of nerve tissue

Nervous Tissue

The nervous system is the system of communication between the various parts of the body. It can be compared to a simple telephone system in which the brain is comparable to the central switchboard, the spinal cord is comparable to the main cable and the nerves are comparable to the telephone wires, ending in receivers and dischargers of messages in the body tissue.

The Myelin Sheath – Functions

  • Protection
  • Nutrition
  • Insulation

Types of Neuron

  1. Efferent neurons
  2. Afferent neurons

Types of Nerve Fiber Ending

  1. Efferent (motor) nerve endings
  2. Afferent (sensory) nerve endings.

The Synapse

It is essential that neurons communicate with each other. For example, the axon of one neuron may need to communicate with the dendrite of another nerve cell.

The Nerve Impulse

One of the ways in which substances may enter and exit a cell is via the process of osmosis. In order for this process to occur the cell membrane has to be semi-permeable. This means that cell walls have a variety of ‘gates’ through which various substances are allowed to pass.

Neurotransmitters

The nerve impulse is a form of electrical activity. The gap between the nerve end and the next cell is a fluid-filled space – the synapse. The impulse cannot jump across the gap like a spark in an electrical circuit.

  • Action Potential
  • Resting Membrane Potential

Unit Ten: Voluntary and Reflex Actions of the Autonomic Nervous System

The Learning Outcomes for this unit are:

  • Explain the anatomical difference between a voluntary movement and a reflex action
  • Explain the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Identify the functions of the autonomic nervous system

Voluntary Movement

Voluntary movement occurs as a result of stimuli produced at will in the motor centers of the brain. The stimuli are transmitted by motor fibers, via the cord and nerves, to the muscles to produce contractions.

Reflex Action

Reflex action occurs as a result of the stimulation of the motor cells by stimuli transmitted by afferent neurons from the tissues. Incoming stimuli can therefore, cause sensation and give rise to a reaction.

The Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system supplies nerves to all the internal organs of the body and blood vessels. It is the part of the nervous system which controls and regulates the activities of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and certain glands.

  • Sympathetic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic nervous system
  • Functions of the autonomic nervous system

Recognition & Accreditation

All students who complete this course, receive a certificate of completion with a passing score (for the online assessment) and will be issued a certificate via email.

The Skeletal System

  • Describe the main functions of the skeletal system
  • Identify the types of bone that make up the skeletal system
  • Identify the 5 main types of bone classification
  • Explain the structure of skeletal tissue
  • Describe the development of bone

Joints

  • What is a joint
  • Main types of joint
  • Synovial joints – their common characteristics and movement patterns
  • Anatomical position
  • Degrees of freedom of joints
  • Planes of the body
  • Training the skeleton

The Muscular System

  • Identify the three types of muscle tissue
  • Properties of skeletal muscle
  • Describe the functions of skeletal muscle
  • Identify different muscles shapes
  • What is the role of the muscle fibres
  • Identify the types of muscular contraction
  • Identify the structure of skeletal muscles
  • Explain the Sliding Filament Theory
  • Describe how muscle contraction is initiated
  • The all or none law
  • Explain how muscle contraction is controlled

The Chemistry of Using Food to provide Energy for the Body

  • How the food we eat is taken apart and utilised to provide energy
  • How food molecules are transported to cells where they will be used

Cellular Energy

  • describe where the energy to drive cellular activity comes from
  • explain what mitochondria are and how they function
  • explain where mitochondria are thought to have originated

The Heart

  • Describe the anatomical position of the heart, its size and its structure
  • Explain the passage of blood flow through the heart
  • Identify the mechanisms of the heart beat and how it is controlled
  • Describe the cardiac cycle
  • Describe how the heart is trained
  • Identify the main arteries that supply the heart with blood
  • Describe the relationship between the heart and blood pressure

The Brain

  • Summarise the functions of the central nervous system
  • Identify the structure and function of the five main parts of the brain 
  • Explain the function of the ventricles of the brain 
  • Explain the role of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid

The Spinal Cord

  • Explain the structure and function of the spinal cord
  • Identify the peripheral nerves
  • Explain the type, function and distribution of the twelve cranial nerves
  • Explain the function and route of the spinal nerves.

Neurones

  • Describe the structure of a  typical neuron
  • Identify different types of neuron and explain their functions
  • Explain the function of nerve endings
  • Identify the electrical and chemical factors essential in the functioning of nerve tissue

Voluntary and Reflex Actions and the Automatic Nervous System

  • Explain the anatomical difference between a voluntary movement and a reflex action
  • Explain the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Identify the functions of the autonomic nervous system

Entry requirements

Students must have basic literacy and numeracy skills.

Open entry

Previous schooling and academic achievements are not required for entry into this course.

Computer requirements

Students will need access to a computer and the internet.

Minimum specifications for the computer are:

Windows:

  • Microsoft Windows XP, or later
  • Modern and up to date Browser (Internet Explorer 8 or later, Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

MAC/iOS

  • OSX/iOS 6 or later
  • Modern and up to date Browser (Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

All systems

  • Internet bandwidth of 1Mb or faster
  • Flash player or a browser with HTML5 video capabilities(Currently Internet Explorer 9, Firefox, Chrome, Safari)

Students will also need access the following applications:

  • Adobe Acrobat Reader 
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Carl Blake

31 December 2021 04:47:04 PM

This Anatomy and Physiology course I took is complete and easy to understand.

Richard Bailey

28 December 2021 06:14:07 PM

I've learned more about the subject in weeks than what I learned at the university

Stewart Carr

24 December 2021 09:45:09 AM

The content is intelligent and engaging

Brian Langdon

19 December 2021 04:00:56 AM

It does a pretty good job in covering the basics and going into moderate detail in a way that's easy to understand.

Alexander Allan

14 December 2021 12:54:04 PM

This course is great. It is an online course that teaches you everything about anatomy.

Katherine Turner

1 December 2021 06:53:57 PM

This Covers everything from the ground up and uses a lot of infographics to help you learn.

Neil Rampling

29 November 2021 03:11:21 PM

I enrolled in this anatomy and physiology course and I loved it!

Jonathan Walsh

23 November 2021 06:49:08 PM

Excellent resource! This is a great course that's current and complete.

Isaac Quinn

18 November 2021 02:54:35 PM

Im very happy with this course

Matt Lee

10 November 2021 04:26:49 PM

good info will def help with my career

Hannah Lee

7 November 2021 04:36:45 AM

Great overview and lesson plan! Great course!

Joe Springer

2 November 2021 04:25:54 PM

Looking forward to diving into more courses from this company!

Wendy Simpson Hasad

28 October 2021 03:10:54 PM

The course not only covers anatomy and physiology, but also muscle testing, business management skills, marketing strategies, exercise instruction techniques and more.

Harry Powell

26 October 2021 05:52:45 PM

I didn't even need training. I would also like to say thank you to all your staff. Absolutely wonderful!

Stewart Ince

21 October 2021 09:28:07 AM

Great! Course packed with info!! wonderful!!

Andrew Bailey

14 October 2021 04:53:43 PM

Topics are well discussed, just right for what is needed

Emma Short

10 December 2021 04:29:13 AM

I had a lot of doubts about this course at first, but over the last few days I really grew to love it.

Bella Abraham

16 October 2021 03:40:20 AM

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Thomas Peake

14 October 2021 04:53:15 PM

Wow, so much info packed into a comprehensive course pack

Karen Lynn Turpin

17 October 2021 01:38:31 AM

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Course Summary

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